Models for Changing Ethnic Identity

Ethnic identity as dynamic, liquid and situational
This deterministic approach has been criticized as being too simplistic, because the process of changing ethnic identities in ethnic groups, in fact, circular, interactional and dynamic, involves conflicts within ethnic groups.

Models for Changing Ethnic Identity
Basically, ethnic identity arises when two or more ethnic groups are related. In the past there have been various models of the nature and process of transforming ethnic identity, especially the acculturation model and the assimilation model that are sometimes exchanged. Assimilation tends to parallel the loss of ethnicity, while cultural pluralism tends to accentuate the continuity of ethnicity (Kim, 1988: 30).
Assimilation refers to "the extent to which a group that was originally unique has lost its subjective identity and has been absorbed into the social structure of another group. Indeed, acculturation is a prerequisite, or at least along with assimilation because of how it is possible for a person to lose his distinctive feelings and be fully accepted by another group unless he is fluent in the language and culture of the recipient group.
The concept of acculturation and the concept of assimilation originated from and developed in the United States. The difference between the two processes is that acculturation is a two-way process, whereas assimilation is a one-way process.
Since the authoritative definition emerged, many experts put forward the definition of acculturation. Many definitions contain similar interpretations, namely that acculturation is a form of cultural change that results from contact of cultural groups, which emphasizes the acceptance of new patterns and cultures and the characteristics of indigenous communities by minority groups.

Ethnic Concepts (Ethnicity)
In studying the relationship between ethnic groups, it can be done by looking at the cases that occur. Especially for ethnic groups who rarely experience conflict and survive the friction that occurs. The aim is to identify how they deal with any friction that occurs without conflict.
According to Barth, (hasbullah, 2013: 26) ethnic groups can be called a cultural unit because ethnic groups have an important main characteristic, namely the ability to share the same cultural traits. And he assumes that each ethnic group has its own cultural characteristics.
There are 2 main things that can be discussed in observing ethnic groups with the characteristics of this particular cultural unit, namely: the continuity of cultural units and the factors that influence the formation of these cultural units. There are several implications when viewing ethnic groups as cultural units, namely:
The classification of certain individuals or groups is stated as members of a particular ethnic group depending on its ability to show the cultural nature of the ethnic group.
Forms of culture that appear to show the influence of ecology, but that does not mean this shows that all that is only a form of adjustment to the environment solely.
However, it is more correct to say that this cultural form is the result of adjustments by ethnic group members when dealing with various external factors. Such as when an ethnic group that lives scattered in an area that has a varied ecological environment, will show different behavior according to the area of residence, but does not reflect the orientation of different cultural values.

Politics of Identity
This concept is explained by Gabriel Almond (Tri Yudha Handoko, 2009) at length and easy to understand, which is as follows. These tools, experiences, and influences, all of which shape the individual attitude, then create what is called someone's "identity politics", which is a combination of several feelings and attitudes:
In the political system there are basic attitudes and beliefs such as nationalism, ethnic or class identification, ideological attachment, and a fundamental feeling of personal rights, privileges and obligations.
There is a lack of emotional commitment to, and knowledge of, government and political institutions such as elections, the structure of the representative body, the powers of the executive, the structure of the judiciary; and legal system.
There are more rapidly changing views about events, political policy, political issues and well-known political figures. Identity politics has indeed been understood and directed so far in terms of personal identity and collective identity such as identity which is built on the basis of gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion and nation.